藏身澳門酒廠內的宗教 — —德教

1963年8月31日,香港華僑日報報導有香港德教人士將於澳門推行德教,並在黑沙灣永樂酒廠內設立「紫江閣」,作為德教的宗教場所。現今主流的宗教,如基督教、佛教、伊斯蘭教等,都是大家耳熟能詳的宗教。相對來說,不少人對於德教一定深感陌生,那德教究竟是何方神聖?

來源:華僑日報, 1963–08–31

德教發源於二十世紀三、四十年代的廣東潮汕地區,宣稱自身為道、佛、孔、耶、回五教合一的宗教,但其實德教在發展為宗教之前,只是一個鸞堂組織。鸞堂即是進行「扶鸞」的壇堂,所謂的扶鸞是指神靈依附在「鸞生」身上(被附身的凡人稱為鸞生),神靈透過鸞生手持「鸞筆」(Y字型的木棍)書寫出各種信息,以此向人間傳遞天界旨意。扶鸞這一儀式在中國民間由來已久,據說自東周平王時期便出現,明清時期更是極為興盛。

鸞筆,來源:網上圖片

1942年,德教著名經書《德教心典》問世,標誌德教由鸞堂走向制度性宗教。除了經書的出現,德教早期兩位核心人物「清陽二掌」 — — 馬貴德與李懷德,也是建構與整合德教為宗教的重要人物。早期德教多自稱為「普門」、「佛門」、「聖教」等稱呼,「德教」這一詞最早出現在1944年一篇乩文中,此後他們漸漸自稱為德教。

「清陽二掌」 馬貴德與李懷德不僅致力建構德教,還是把德教從潮汕地區傳播到海外的重要推手。馬貴德與李懷德除了宗教領袖這個身份外,他們同時也是一名商人,常常藉由經商傳播德教,而馬李兩人主要經商的地點為香港、星州、泰國等地,故德教很早便傳至當地。德教的傳播方式頗為特別,他們先進行扶鸞得到揚教某地的啓示,然後通過聯繫當地的華僑(不少是潮汕商人)成立德教組織,通常該組織稱為「紫某閣」,而這種傳播模式同樣出現在澳門。

根據報導,居士詹天眼成功在香港各地設立「紫某閣」後,得到呂祖(呂洞賓)乩令,令他在澳門成立「紫江閣」,在澳門推行慈善救濟工作。然而報導中的詹天眼其實大有來頭,他曾擔任陳濟棠的幕僚、開辦報章、成立慈善組織,同時他亦為一位潮汕商人。抗戰後,詹天眼移居香港,經商之余又繼續傳揚德教,著書立說。不過,從報導中可見,早在詹天眼成立紫江閣前,德教已傳到澳門,所以他不是最早把德教帶到澳門之人。

時至今日,筆者找不到任何紫江閣在澳門的痕跡,不過澳門仍然存有德教組織 — — 中國澳門德教會濟修閣。此組織的成立時間十分晚近,在2007年成立,只有短短十二年時間。由於筆者並沒有深究,所有澳門很有可能還有其他德教組織,只是筆者沒有發現。無論如何,德教在澳門的歷史顯然鮮有為人所知,實在令人感到可惜。

參考資料:
<談扶鸞的起源與沿革>,林翠鳳,東海大學圖書館館刊,13期
<草創時期德教的建構與演變>,陳景熙,汕頭大學學報,23卷第6期
<德教海外揚教與”香叻暹汕”貿易體系>,陳景熙,海交史研究雜誌,2008年1期
華僑日報,1963–08–31
南方都市報,2018–04–17

原文:https://medium.com/史集-historical-market/藏身澳門酒廠內的宗教-德教-ccefbd929ee9

分類: 德教淵源。這篇內容的永久連結

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